Internship: Radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of tin explosions

Date posted February 13, 2023
Type Scientific internships

In our lab, we investigate the interaction of laser pulses with liquid tin microspheres to advance the knowledge of the physical processes that rule the extreme ultraviolet light (EUV) generation currently used in state-of-the-art nanolithography machines. These machines use a two-step process to generate EUV light that is later on used to inscribe the smallest microchips with the highest spatial resolution. In the first step, a laser-pulse illuminates one side of a tin droplet creating a plasma at its surface, whose rapid expansion transfers momentum to the droplet inducing a controlled propulsion and deformation into a pizza-like shape. A few microseconds after the initial kick, a second, more intense, laser pulse illuminates the expanding material and generates a tin plasma that preferentially generates EUV light at a wavelength of 13.5 nm.

The goal of this (BSc) project is to employ state-of-the-art laser-plasma simulations to understand and predict the expansion dynamics of a plasma formed by laser irradiation of a solid tin target. You will perform radiation–hydrodynamic simulations (that is: coupling energy from radiation to the fluid dynamics) using a pre-existing code (called RALEF-2D) to quantify the evolution of plasma densities, temperatures and expansion speeds both during and after laser pulse irradiation. Comparisons will be drawn with analytical models of plasma expansion as well as with experimental measurements performed also in our group at ARCNL 

Recommended articles for further reading on this subject:

  • Kurilovich, M.M. Basko, D.A. Kim, F. Torretti, J.C. Visschers, R. Schupp, J. Scheers, R. Hoekstra, W.M.G. Ubachs and O.O. Versolato, Power-law scaling of plasma pressure on laser-ablated tin microdroplets, Phys. Plasmas 25, 012709: 1-10 (2018)
  • O.O. Versolato, Physics of laser-driven tin plasma sources of EUV radiation for nanolithography, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 28, 8: 083001:1-17 (2019)
  • Torretti, J. Sheil, R. Schupp, M.M. Basko, M. Bayraktar, R.A. Meijer, S. Witte, W.M.G. Ubachs, R. Hoekstra, O.O. Versolato, A.J. Neukirch and J. Colgan, Prominent radiative contributions from multiply-excited states in laser-produced tin plasma for nanolithography, Nature Commun. 11, 1: 2334: 1-8 (2020)


About the group

At the Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography (ARCNL) we carry out exciting fundamental physics research at the highest possible level with relevance to key technologies in nanolithography. We contribute to the production of ever smarter and smaller electronics, while at the same time pushing the boundaries of our fundamental insight into the workings of nature.

You will be embedded in the EUV Plasma Processes group at ARCNL but will also be closely associated with the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and ASML, the world leading manufacturer of high tech lithography machines for chip making.


You have or will soon have a Bachelor’s degree in physics or a related field and will participate in a Master study during the entire internship duration. The internship must be a mandatory part of your curriculum. You have a nationality of an EU member state and/or you are a student at a Netherlands University. Please note: As of January 2021 the UK is no longer an EU member state.

In case of a BSc project you will need to have 132 EC worth of study credit before the start of your research with us in line with the demands from the Amsterdam Universities.


Terms of employment

At the start of the traineeship your trainee plan will be set out, in consultation with your ARCNL supervisor.

Contact info

Prof.dr. Oscar Versolato
Group leader EUV Plasma Processes
Phone: +31 (0)20-754 7100

You can respond to this vacancy online via the button below.
Please annex your:
–  Resume;

–  List of followed courses plus grades.
Applications will be evaluated on a rolling basis and as soon as an excellent match is made, the position will be filled.

Online screening may be part of the selection.

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